Bottle or closed gentian (Gentiana andrewsii) blooms in September in western Pennsylvania. By the end of October it’s gone to seed.
In bloom this gentian’s tightly closed petals prevent most insects from reaching its nectar, though bumblebees can force their way in.
Carpenter bees take a shortcut. They drill a hole in the petals to access the pollen and nectar. Once there’s a hole, honeybees and other small insects use it, too.
When I found the faded gentian shown above, I plucked a dried flower to examine the seeds. Aha! The closed petals have two holes in them. The seed pod also has two curled knobs at the top.
I pulled the knobs apart to reveal the seeds …
… and scattered them nearby.
I hope they’ll become new gentians next year.
(photos by Kate St. John)